You Can Now Go Inside The London House Where Van Gogh Used To Live

Find the blue sticker. Photo: Tom Parsons

The London House, where the famous painter Vincent Van Gogh - the subject of a major exhibition in the Tate Britain - was in his twenties, is now open to the public.

It was only a short time of his life, between 1873 and 1877, and not much of his time in the capital remains. However, if you stroll through the side streets of Stockwell, you'll spot a blue badge at Hackford Road 87, which declares it to be his residence. The house was recently renovated and is now open for guided tours.

It is now used for temporary exhibitions. Image copyright Saskia Olde Wolbers.

When we last visited an art installation in 2014, it was in a semi-dilapidated and somewhat atmospheric state. Now the peeling wallpaper and the battered furniture are gone and it is much flawless. If you are worried that the story will be erased, keep in mind that this house was inhabited by many others before a local postman discovered the connection to Van Gogh - this discovery took place in 1971 and the blue plaque followed in 1973.

When the house was for sale in 2012, James and Alice Wang bought it for £ 525,000. The art lover and businessman James remarked:

I can not afford a Van Gogh painting, but I can afford his house.

You may have demolished the outhouse, but the toilet seat remains. Photo: Tom Parsons

In truth, there is not much left of the painter's time, although the staircase and floorboards and mantel in Van Gogh's room date back to that time. That's why the house needs guidance - without the context the guides provide, there is not much to do. We thank the new owners for getting what they can, and new discoveries are still being made. In the attic, the builders found a prayer book, and though there is no evidence that it belonged to Van Gogh, he was a very religious man, and the owners of the house were not so religiously minded that it would be kept safe if it was should be turn out to be.

The tour of the house begins at a nearby gallery before crossing Brixton Road to see the route Van Gogh took to work. He was an avid wanderer, so he went from Stockwell to the art dealer on Southampton Street in Covent Garden, where he worked. He claimed he needed 45 minutes, so he had to walk to a fair clip - Google Maps suggests it would take more than an hour.

The back has received a very modern extension. Photo: Tom Parsons

In Van Gogh's time, the house belonged to mother and daughter Ursula and Eugenie Loyer, who led a small school in the anteroom and built their income through subtenants. He noted that it had been the happiest time of his life - possibly because he had fallen in love with a woman but was later rejected. Early historical records indicated that it was the mother Ursula, but recent evidence suggests that her daughter Eugenie was more likely to be of a similar age to Van Gogh.

This unrequited love may have been the reason Van Gogh suddenly left home and became more religious, away from art and preaching. His time in this house may have been only a few years, but it was an important part of his life before he became a tortured artist figure, with whom we are all familiar.

A postcard of what the old outer enclosure looked like before it was demolished.

Fortunately, the new owners want to make the house as artistic as possible with plays and temporary exhibitions. The goal is also to have artists who work in their residence and channel their own inner Van Gogh, inspired by their predecessor.

The Van Gogh House is not the only appreciation for the artist's time in London, because right next door is Van Gogh Walk - a short pedestrian street filled with community gardens and a community library in a small cabinet on the wall. It's a nice detour before we head back to London, although unlike Van Gogh, we'll take the subway.

Van Gogh House can only be visited as part of a guided tour. The tours take place on Thursdays and Saturdays and currently cost £ 9.50 per person. The total price is £ 15.


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'Everyone seems to be welcome to the get together!': the B-52s on 40years of hits | Music

"WWe've by no means seen one another as pop stars, "remembers Kate Pierson of the 40-year historical past of the B-52, redefining the detritus of American standard tradition. Actually, they have been so in opposition to the concept when the band was nominated for his or her single Love Shack for Greatest Pop Efficiency on the 1989 Grammys, their singer Fred Schneider - alongside Pierson and Cindy Wilson - was not a part of an unorthodox vocal trident it was not pleased. "Offended!" Remembers Pierson.

In nowadays, in the midst of one other world tour, she is extra relaxed about it. "I got here to understand the concept we're foolish and loopy and that we give folks a way of enjoyable, freedom and happiness," she says. "Individuals come and say, 'You helped me out in highschool,' or 'You helped me out in a disaster,' and that's such a present." However which of the B-52 songs would select them to guide them by way of life?

Kate Pierson.

"We wore loopy wigs and loopy outfits" ... Kate Pierson. Picture: Lynn Goldsmith / Corbis / VCG on Getty Pictures

Rock Lobster
(from the B-52, 1979)

The B-52 (they dropped the apostrophe in 2008) converged in Athens, Georgia, earlier than it grew to become often known as the Music Metropolis. Pierson had moved there along with her "future ex-husband" to return to the nation and never do artwork. "It was a farming city: there was a ironmongery store, a feed enterprise and a seed enterprise. I had this place for $ 15 a month in the midst of a subject, a cool previous cabin - it was the love stall! I lived on the market and fashioned our personal group of loopy people: eccentrics and artists who simply have enjoyable with one another and create our personal enjoyable. We frolicked collectively and crashed events. If there have been free beer, we'd crash the get together and trigger havoc. As soon as I took a backyard hose into the home and sprayed it round. Fortunately they have been my buddies and it was a rented home. "

Among the many eccentrics have been Ricky Wilson and his sister Cindy, Keith Strickland and Schneider, and the concept of ​​beginning a band got here after sharing a Flaming Volcano cocktail in a Chinese language restaurant. "We're all large music followers. Fred had an enormous report assortment. All of us heard every kind of stuff and there was the music library of the College of Georgia so we had entry to African music. I used to be a really early fan of African music. We listened to Perez Prado and Kai Winding in addition to soul music and B-movie soundtracks and Nino Rota. There was no web on the time, so we regarded for inspiration in dictionaries. "

Out of this stew got here Rock Lobster. The textual content comes from a disco in Atlanta referred to as 2001 - "Fred was actually excited when he noticed a disco and noticed these crustaceans projected onto the partitions" - however the tune was propelled by the reef Wilson, which he performed on his Mosrite Had picked guitar. "At first, the success of Rock Lobster was an entire shock. We mentioned to ourselves, "That is so unusual, who will hear that?" After we performed our first get together in Athens, all our buddies danced. It is a actually nice signal. We knew we have been getting concerned. "

(from Mesopotamia EP, 1982)

With their second album, Wild Planet, on each side of the Atlantic within the high 20, the strain was nice to achieve the subsequent degree of success, and the B-52 went into the studio with David Byrne to provide what must be their third album, however ultimately it was the 6-track EP Mesopotamia. Why didn't they end an album? "It was falsely claimed that we had a battle with David Byrne, however that's not true in any respect, it was actually our supervisor Gary Kurfirst, who was additionally the supervisor of Speaking Heads, who thought we wanted to maintain the momentum going We simply bowed to his strain to chop it quick and specific what we had, songs like Cake have been by no means actually completed. "The sound of the primary two information was dictated by Chris Blackwell, the pinnacle of Island Information, who needed that they sound sparse, like their stay sound. "However we have been a bit disenchanted - we needed to sound a bit higher, so David Byrne's resolution was to enhance the band's sound a bit."

(from Whammy !, 1983)

In 1983, a sure thought of ​​the B-52 had settled. "Wacky" was the phrase folks used. We have been perceived as a extremely foolish, pugnacious, loopy band. And that was arduous. I like to learn British critics, however one among them - I'll always remember it - mentioned, "They're not going to impose their American trash aesthetics on us." That's what it regarded like: an American trash aesthetic, a band, that was actually, actually foolish. However we had many very deep ideas. "It now appears outstanding that you may arise for the B-52 because the mum or dad of retro futurism in pop music. "We have been an excessive amount of sooner or later," says Pierson, laughing. "We have been futurists of the long run."

Take Trism. "Fred considered the Trisma: a time machine, just like the Star Trek" beam me up. "There's a line -" You've bought to trip Trisma "- and I have no idea if anybody knew what the hell we have been speaking about I really like this tune as a result of, like a lot of our songs, there isn't a actual refrain, each a part of it's totally different, Cindy and I've a extremely bizarre concord and it's so typical of B-52, nevertheless it's a kind of songs that we don't actually play stay, it's one of many hidden gems for me that I nonetheless get pleasure from listening to as a result of I've not heard it fairly often. "

The B-52s. From left to right: Keith Strickland, drums; Ricky Wilson, guitar; Fred Schneider, vocals; Cindy Wilson, guitar and vocals; Kate Pierson, keyboards and vocals.

The B-52s. From left to proper: Keith Strickland, drums; Ricky Wilson, guitar; Fred Schneider, vocals; Cindy Wilson, guitar and vocals; Kate Pierson, keyboards and vocals. Picture: Lynn Goldsmith / Corbis / VCG on Getty Pictures

Love nest
(from Cosmic Factor, 1989)

Earlier than releasing the 1986 album Bouncing Off the Satellites, Ricky Wilson died of an AIDS-related sickness after retaining his sickness secret from his fellow band members besides Strickland till shortly earlier than his demise. "We noticed how Ricky bought skinny and requested when you have been okay." And he mentioned, "Oh, I finished consuming Mexican meals." He cherished Mexican meals. At some point he didn't come to the rehearsal. Keith referred to as me the subsequent day and mentioned, "Ricky is within the hospital and he might die." It was the surprising factor. It appeared like we, particularly Cindy, would by no means recover from it. Trying again, we have been in rejection. We thought one thing was unsuitable, however we by no means thought he would die all of a sudden. "

It was Strickland who introduced the band again collectively. He switched from drums to guitar and realized to play in Wilson's model. "He was the catalyst. It was a therapeutic factor. We felt that we had to do that in honor of Ricky.

"The title of Love Shack was Fred's thought, although among the strains within the tune [are about] My place, the place I lived for $ 15 a month, in the midst of a subject of goats. However Fred considered this place referred to as Hawaiian Ha-le - a music venue within the nation, primarily African American, however college students would go there and play nice soul music there. I consider the place in The Coloration Purple, a kind of Nation Juke joints. It's a fictional place, however the entire thought is everyone seems to be welcome to the get together. "

Deadbeat Membership
(from Cosmic Factor, 1989)

Recognizing their Athenian previous on the Deadbeat Membership, the B-52s recalled the time earlier than their fame once they both had deadbeat jobs or no jobs - therefore the title - and lived the lives of artwork college students. "It's very nostalgic and it's about issues that actually occurred, we had a farewell get together for our good friend Robert Waldrop: a quiet get together, we met on this backyard and it was quiet, it was raining and we had sheets and blankets round us and have been bare apart from the sheets We ran round him and pushed round him Very creative, however we thought we have been the primary to ever do this. "

Cosmic factor
(from Cosmic Factor, 1989)

Based on Pierson, the title tune of Cosmic Factor summarizes the recording. Half of the album may be very bittersweet, however Cosmic Factor is the forward-thinking tune and it's political. "Cosmic factor made the B-52 an actual fame. The singles Love Shack and Roam have been a success virtually all over the place on the earth. In all places however in Japan - a failure Pierson attributes to her title. Though the title of the band refers to a hive coiffure, the coiffure is called after the plane that dropped the atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

With an enormous hit album got here 18 months of strong excursions. "When you go on tour for thus lengthy, you'll go residence and within the meantime, new buildings have been constructed that make you're feeling such as you're within the Rock & Roll military," she says. "We have been remoted on this tour. I don't assume we had time to guide the lifetime of pop stars. We have been on the bus. We had a celebration - we had some epic bus events, and the bus driver created a dance referred to as Bore Hog. We might make our live performance, then get on the bus and transfer on. It was a wild trip. We have been bored with being this underground band - that was affirmation of one thing. "

(from Cosmic Factor, 1989)

The recording of Bouncing Off the Satellites was a tough and out of stability course of, "as a result of Ricky was sick - he simply couldn't deal with all the group problems." It was fragmented and I felt alienated, simply as I believe Fred did. "Cosmic factor introduced the band again collectively. "It felt nice to get collectively, despite the fact that Ricky was lacking. We thought there is part of him that's nonetheless with us, and it was a treatment. "

His absence grew to become obvious, nevertheless, when the group went on tour. "Cindy typically regarded up and noticed a phantom Ricky." Thankfully, the entire time on the highway didn't trigger any confusion within the group, as it might. "We're nonetheless buddies, which after 40 years on tour is a miracle, we additionally took numerous breaks and didn't set that many information, so we lowered the strain, we're buddies sufficient to provide one another leeway, and we all know what it's all about, so we don't attempt to go there, it's like in households the place it doesn't work, and typically it's higher to not say something, however we're nonetheless collectively consuming and partying collectively It's a miracle that we love one another. "

The B-52s around the time of the 2008 album Funplex.

"We nonetheless grasp collectively, we nonetheless love one another" ... the B-52 across the time of the 2008 album Funplex.

Julia the ghosts
(from Funplex, 2008)

The newest B-52 album introduced her again to one among her earliest inspirations: director Federico Fellini. Not solely did they reverence Nino Rota's scores for Fellini's movies, however additionally they thought-about calling themselves Fellini's youngsters earlier than choosing the B-52. "We wrote Fellini to see if he would make a video. He politely declined. We have been so influenced by him and the Deadbeat Membership video was very influenced by his film Juliet of the Spirits. And this tune got here straight from the film. All of us contributed. Keith had the concept to make a tune in tribute to Julia. And it's a really highly effective girl's tune. I believe it must be simply as profitable as Roam as a result of it actually has energy. "

Might it's mentioned that the B-52s, which not solely put girls on the middle of objects for the male gaze, have been an essential feminist group? "Cindy and I didn't gown in magnificence proper from the beginning. We wore loopy wigs and loopy outfits. So we by no means tried to be glamor pussies. However we didn't have a pacesetter and all of us contributed the identical quantity. "She laughs." I'm glad somebody would take into account me a feast for the eyes these days. "

 The B-52 are at the moment touring North America by way of September 24th.


How Cloud ERP Software program Can Add Worth to Your Enterprise

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Cloud ERP senkt Ihr Geschäft & # 39; Gesamtkosten sowie Pauschalpreise und es gibt ein hohes Maß an Sicherheit, Privatsphäre, einfache Erreichbarkeit und Integration. Sie können Ihre Daten auch jederzeit verschieben, während ständig neue Options und Funktionen hinzugefügt werden. Es ist eine versatile und kostengünstige Choice für mittelständische Unternehmen, da das Preismodell verschiedene Alternativen bietet, z.

Darüber hinaus bietet Cloud ERP Anwendungsskalierbarkeit und senkt die Hardwarekosten. Das mühsame Verwalten von {Hardware}, Software program und Upgrades wird reduziert, während gleichzeitig die Vorabkosten gesenkt werden. Sie können eine interne Cloud erstellen, um die konstanten Hardwarekosten zu senken, auch wenn Sie die Integration besser kontrollieren und lokalen Zugriff auf Ihren Datenserver haben.

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The Rising Manganese Bull Market

Though manganese is the fourth most closely consumed steel - behind iron, aluminum and copper, most buyers have failed to watch the dramatic bull market in manganese which started unfolding this previous spring.

About 34 million tons of manganese ore have been mined in 2006.

Manganese (Mn) is a key element in metal and iron manufacturing, which accounts for as much as 90 p.c of the steel's present consumption. However, the gray-white steel additionally performs an necessary function in low-cost stainless-steel formulation and aluminum alloys. For instance, manganese steels include as much as 14 p.c Mn.

In 2006, the worldwide unit consumption of manganese ferroalloys was roughly 10 kilograms alloy per metric ton of metal produced.

In specialty alloys, the place nickel is changed partially or totally by manganese, the Mn content material can run as excessive as 16 p.c. Hadfield Metal accommodates 13 p.c or extra manganese. This model of metal requires toughness and wear-resistance for functions in gyratory crushers, jaw crusher plates, rail metal and reducing edges for earth-moving tools.

Earlier this 12 months, Allegheny Ludlum defined excessive costs had pressured the specialty steelmaker to exchange nickel with manganese in a few of its merchandise. This spring, Finnish stainless-steel producer Outokumpu launched a duplex stainless product, LDX 2101, as a nickel-free stainless. The product makes use of a higher proportion of manganese as a substitute of nickel.

The place functions allow, the stainless-steel market is taking to maneuver away from austenitics to duplex, ferritic and different grades as a way to rely much less upon nickel. One report recommended chrome-manganese manufacturing may soar by 50 p.c inside two years. Consequently, the nickel-chrome grades may lose 20 p.c of their stainless-steel market share.

Why Manganese?

Other than a small circle of metallurgists, chemists and miners, manganese shouldn't be a widely known component. Look-wise, it resembles iron.

By advantage of its properties - sulfur-fixing, deoxidizing and alloying, manganese is important to iron and metal manufacturing. In the event you dropped a crescent wrench on a cement flooring, it might shatter into items if the wrench have been made with out manganese. It's the 'glue' that binds, hardens andvents iron and metal merchandise from being too brittle.

Some manganese compounds have been added to gasoline to spice up octane ranking and cut back engine knocking. In natural chemistry, manganese dioxide is used as a reagent for the oxidation of benzylic alcohols. Manganese has a big selection of commercial makes use of - rust and corrosion prevention on metal, paint pigments, dry cell and alkaline batteries, animal feed, glass manufacturing, fertilizers and lots of medical and well being functions.

China will rely on the manganese in railroad metal rails because the nation dramatically develop its rail system over the following decade.

The automotive business will rely on manganese for the following technology of hybrid electrical automobiles and gas cells. Manganese cannot solely cut back prices in automobile physique elements - providing much less weight in auto frames, however it may additionally add higher structural energy. Toyota reportedly is near perfecting a lithium-manganese ion battery for the Hybrid Electrical Automobiles (HEV). The brand new technology cathodic supplies embody manganese and have extra energy functionality, longer runtime and are less expensive as a result of they're smaller and lighter.

Aluminum alloys make the most of small portions of manganese to reinforce corrosion resistance. Many industrial copper alloys include as much as two p.c manganese. And uranium ore is processed with manganese as an oxidizing agent to supply yellowcake to be used in nuclear reactors.

New functions for manganese are being researched. Lately, at Kyoto College in Japan, researchers have developed a brand new course of designed to breed the photosynthesis course of. Through the use of manganese dioxide, it could be attainable to soak up a big amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, which contribute to international warming.

In accordance with the US Geological Survey, "Manganese has no passable substitute in its main functions."

On the Manganese Manufacturing Entrance

Over 80 p.c of the recognized world manganese sources are present in South Africa and the Ukraine. Different main manganese deposits are situated in China, Australia, Brazil, Gabon, India and Mexico. Lately, as much as 60 p.c of world manganese ferro-alloy manufacturing comes from South Africa, China and the Ukraine.

The US imports greater than 50 p.c of its manganese from South Africa and Gabon.

Fewer international locations now produce manganese and ferro-manganese than within the earlier decade. Main producing international locations similar to Canada and the UK ceased manufacturing within the early 1990s. Japan and Germany curtailed their output throughout an period of 'low-cost manganese' when the steel bought for pennies per pound.

By 2001, the manganese ferro-alloys business estimated it had a 40-percent overcapacity - a lot of this was present in China and the CIS. China closed lots of its unprofitable manganese operations; fewer than 10 out of 800 have been believed to be worthwhile.

At present, no new manganese mines seem on the near-term horizon.

As has been discovered with different metals - predominately uranium and molybdenum, a 'drought' over multiple or 20 years brought on costs to dramatically rise lately. Manganese's worth rise is similar situation present in different mineral areas - far too few new mines for a lot too a few years.

However, manganese demand jumped by 14 p.c.

In accordance with the Worldwide Iron and Metal Institute, world crude metal manufacturing of the 67 reporting international locations elevated by 10.2 p.c of 2007 in comparison with the comparable interval a 12 months earlier.

Within the report for 2007, the Worldwide Manganese Institute introduced, "Manganese demand prospects have by no means been so good." Key factors included:

o Manganese intensive metal grades to develop quicker than common

o Particular manganese consumption rising once more

o Metal demand to exceed six p.c per 12 months for a few years to come back

o Restricted down dangers for the following ten to fifteen years

Observe: Manganese-intensive steels symbolize 13 p.c of complete stainless-steel manufacturing, however devour 41 p.c of the full quantity of manganese consumed by the metal business.

To satisfy the rising demand, BHP Billiton introduced it had ramped up manganese manufacturing to a file 1.5 million tons. Consolidated Minerals Ltd of Australia has dramatically elevated manganese manufacturing over the previous two years. Different massive manganese mines have additionally elevated manufacturing.

US Manganese

As a result of it's important to metal manufacturing, the US authorities considers manganese a strategic steel. In accordance with Lisa Corathers, US Geological Survey manganese commodity specialist, "A continued provide of manganese supplies is important to any protection effort in addition to to upkeep and progress of an industrial financial system."

Involved about ample inventories, the US authorities started stockpiling manganese after World Warfare II. However, by 1965, the federal authorities started promoting off manganese supplies, which they believed have been in extra of what was required. By 2003, the federal government had whittled down its stockpiles to lower than two years of manganese consumption.

Corathers mentioned, "The US has been reliant upon 100 p.c of its manganese wants since 1985."

We talked with Larry Reaugh, chief government of Rocher Deboule Minerals Corp - which lately acquitted the open pit-able Artillery Peak (Arizona) manganese useful resource. With out we're mistaken, he's the one junior mining explorationist presently buying manganese sources in the US and Canada.

Reaugh informed us, "I've been watching manganese intently for the previous a number of months. The value has risen dramatically this 12 months, bringing massive low grade deposits into the realm of feasibility."

He identified, "Manganese is among the prime 4 strategic metals in the US, which has no home manufacturing, and which can also be topic to imports from international locations which for probably the most half have political instability. "He mentioned.

Though costs for nickel, cobalt, vanadium and molybdenum have respectably surged greater by seven-fold, four-fold, six-fold and six-fold, manganese has however doubled in worth. The grey-white steel could have extra room for progress within the years forward.

COPYRIGHT © 2007 by

Think about Restoring A Classic Chrysler, Plymouth, Dodge Or Desoto

An increasing number of classic Chrysler automobiles and vans are being rescued from fields, woods, junk yards and the crusher than ever earlier than.

Fords and Chevy's (yawn) usually tend to be present in the US than in the US. MoPars to be simply the ticket for scratching the restoration / avenue rodding itch.

On this article, we'll check out the MoPars of the early to late thirties and evaluate them to their GM and Ford counter components.

From the start (1924), Walter Chrysler got down to construct a superior vehicle and preserve it that method by way of his tenure because the supreme chief of the corporate, which was unusual for automobiles and vans the low and mid-price area.

These and different elements have been used prior to now, whereas the rivals have at all times been topic to uniform wheeling. Whereas Duesenberg, Packard, Twine, and so forth. was once used, GM and Ford didn't change their place.

Shifting again to the 1930's with the tip of the 1934 mannequin manufacturing run, Chrysler had constructed the final "Chrysler" badged vehicle to make use of wooden as a structural element because the 1935 mannequin PJ launched the period of the all metal bodied low value automobile. The sort of building is uncommon for a time of lower than $ 510 FOB. Ford and GM continued for use for a number of years.

The all metal physique offers a extra versatile, ground-to-ground body, and when coupled with the usage of "Mola" metal, we now have 113 inch wheel base, the journey was easy and quiet.

Lastly, the 1935 mannequin launched probably the most superior flathead six cylinder within the business and Chrysler used this engine with comparatively few configurations till it was changed by the six engine in 1960.

Rated at 82 HP it suits neatly between the Chevrolet six at 80 HP and the (giant) Ford flathead V8 at 85 HP. Moreover, this new engine is called L - Head & # 39; Six had probably the most superior cooling system of any engine constructed at the moment.

A water distribution tube that has been decreased to a continuing move fee within the manufacturing of refrigerant, which has been decreased to a continuing fee.

As everyone knows, the cooler the engine runs the consequence.

The engines are manufacturing facility balanced and are totally compliant with the necessities.

All Chrysler engines have been put in on the Chrysler had dubbed "Floating Energy" (which is most of the time). body.

As well as, the positioning of those motor mounts has the impact of lowering vibration and vibration.

This engine has been used repeatedly in common manufacturing since 1935 - 1959. OUR components are straightforward to find making this some of the financial engines to rebuild and function.

Having owned many MoPars (from 1935 - 1951) with this venerable six cylinder engine I can attest to attaining between 18 and 22.5 MPG relying upon the situations and the ultimate drive ratio. They're so dependable that I purchased a 1951 Plymouth on e-bay, purchased it house, changed the battery hoses and tires, inspected the brakes and headed for Arizona (2003).

With the temperatures within the low 100's Plymouth carried out flawlessly over 5,000 miles.

Earlier than the 12 months 2001, there have been valuable few manufactures of sheet metallic substitute components for these automobiles. At the moment, nonetheless, the manufacturing business is responding to the wants of the market by producing the kind of components essential to reconcile these nice outdated automobiles and vans.

The next replica corporations are each devoted to the preservation of Chrysler merchandise and the manufacturing of top of the range components of the world.

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The Rising Manganese Bull Market

Bien que le manganèse soit le quatrième métal le plus consommé - derrière le fer, l’aluminium et le cuivre, la plupart des investisseurs n’ont pas observé le marché haussier du manganèse, qui a commencé à se développer au printemps dernier.

Environ 34 hundreds of thousands de tonnes de minerai de manganèse ont été extraites en 2006.

Le manganèse (Mn) est un élément clé de la manufacturing d’acier et de fer, qui représente jusqu’à 90% de la consommation actuelle du métal. Mais le métal gris-blanc joue également un rôle essential dans les formules à faible coût pour l'acier inoxydable et les alliages d'aluminium. Par exemple, les aciers au manganèse contiennent jusqu'à 14% de Mn.

En 2006, la consommation unitaire mondiale de ferro-alliages de manganèse était d’environ 10 kilogrammes d’alliage par tonne d’acier produit.

Dans les alliages spéciaux, où le nickel est partiellement ou totalement remplacé par du manganèse, la teneur en Mn peut atteindre 16%. Hadfield Metal contient 13% ou plus de manganèse. Cette marque d'acier a besoin de ténacité et de résistance à l'usure pour les functions dans les concasseurs giratoires, les plaques de concasseur à mâchoires, l'acier de rail et les arêtes de coupe pour engins de terrassement.

Un peu plus tôt cette année, Allegheny Ludlum a expliqué que les prix élevés avaient forcé le sidérurgiste spécialisé dans le traitement de l'acier à remplacer le nickel par du manganèse dans certains de ses produits. Ce printemps, le fabricant finlandais d’aciers inoxydables Outokumpu a lancé un produit duplex, le LDX 2101, en acier inoxydable sans nickel. Le produit utilise un pourcentage plus élevé de manganèse au lieu de nickel.

Lorsque les functions le permettent, le marché de l’acier inoxydable décide de passer des nuances austénitiques aux nuances duplex, ferritique et autres afin de s’appuyer moins sur le nickel. Un rapport a suggéré que la manufacturing de chrome-manganèse pourrait augmenter de 50% en deux ans. Par conséquent, les nuances nickel-chrome pourraient perdre 20% de leur half de marché de l’acier inoxydable.

Pourquoi manganèse?

À l'exception d'un petit cercle de métallurgistes, de chimistes et de mineurs, le manganèse n'est pas un élément bien connu. En ce qui concerne l'apparence, cela ressemble au fer.

En raison de ses propriétés - fixation du soufre, désoxydation et alliage, le manganèse est essentiel à la manufacturing de fer et d'acier. Si vous déposiez une clé à croissant sur un sol en ciment, elle se briserait en éclats si la clé était fabriquée sans manganèse. C'est la & # 39; colle & # 39; qui lie, durcit et évite que les produits en fer et en acier soient trop fragiles.

Certains composés de manganèse ont été ajoutés à l'essence pour augmenter l'indice d'octane et réduire le cognement du moteur. En chimie organique, le dioxyde de manganèse est utilisé comme réactif pour l’oxydation des alcools benzyliques. Le manganèse a un giant éventail d'utilisations industrielles - prévention de la rouille et de la corrosion sur l'acier, pigments de peinture, piles sèches et piles alcalines, aliments pour animaux, manufacturing de verre, engrais et de nombreuses functions médicales et sanitaires.

La Chine dépendra du manganèse contenu dans les rails en acier des chemins de fer, alors que le pays étendra considérablement son réseau de chemin de fer au cours de la prochaine décennie.

L'industrie vehicle dépendra du manganèse pour la prochaine génération de véhicules électriques hybrides et de piles à flamable. Le manganèse permet non seulement de réduire les coûts liés aux composants de la carrosserie d'une voiture, mais offre également une plus grande résistance structurelle. Toyota serait sur le level de perfectionner une batterie à ions lithium-manganèse pour les véhicules électriques hybrides (VÉH). Les matériaux cathodiques de nouvelle génération contiennent du manganèse, ont une plus grande capacité de puissance, une durée de vie plus longue et sont plus économiques, automotive ils sont plus petits et plus légers.

Les alliages d'aluminium utilisent de petites quantités de manganèse pour améliorer la résistance à la corrosion. De nombreux alliages de cuivre commerciaux contiennent jusqu'à 2% de manganèse. Et le minerai d'uranium est traité avec du manganèse en tant qu'agent oxydant pour produire du yellowcake destiné à être utilisé dans des réacteurs nucléaires.

De nouvelles functions pour le manganèse sont à l'étude. Récemment, à l’Université de Kyoto au Japon, des chercheurs ont mis au level un nouveau procédé conçu pour reproduire le processus de photosynthèse. En utilisant du dioxyde de manganèse, il est attainable d'absorber une grande quantité d'émissions de dioxyde de carbone (CO2), qui contribuent au réchauffement de la planète.

Selon l'US Geological Survey, "le manganèse n'a pas de substitut satisfaisant dans ses principales functions".

Sur le entrance de la manufacturing de manganèse

Plus de 80% des ressources mondiales connues en manganèse se trouvent en Afrique du Sud et en Ukraine. Les autres principaux gisements de manganèse sont situés en Chine, en Australie, au Brésil, au Gabon, en Inde et au Mexique. Ces dernières années, près de 60% de la manufacturing mondiale de ferro-alliages de manganèse provient d'Afrique du Sud, de la Chine et de l'Ukraine.

Les États-Unis importent plus de 50% de leur manganèse d'Afrique du Sud et du Gabon.

Aujourd'hui, moins de pays produisent du manganèse et du ferro-manganèse qu'au cours de la décennie précédente. Les principaux pays producteurs tels que le Canada et le Royaume-Uni ont cessé leur manufacturing au début des années 90. Le Japon et l’Allemagne ont réduit leur manufacturing à une époque où le manganèse était bon marché. lorsque le métal vendu pour quelques centimes par livre.

En 2001, l'industrie des ferro-alliages de manganèse estimait avoir une surcapacité de 40% - une grande partie de celle-ci se trouvait en Chine et dans la CEI. La Chine a fermé bon nombre de ses activités non rentables au manganèse; moins de 10 sur 800 seraient rentables.

Actuellement, aucune nouvelle mine de manganèse n'apparaît à l'horizon à courtroom terme.

Comme cela a été constaté avec d’autres métaux - principalement l’uranium et le molybdène, une "sécheresse" & # 39; pendant plus de une ou deux décennies ont entraîné une hausse spectaculaire des prix ces dernières années. La hausse des prix du manganèse est identique à celle des autres zones minérales: beaucoup trop peu de nouvelles mines depuis bien trop d'années.

Mais la demande de manganèse a bondi de 14%.

Selon l'Institut worldwide du fer et de l'acier, la manufacturing mondiale d'acier brut des 67 pays déclarants a augmenté de 10,2% en 2007 par rapport à la période comparable de l'année précédente.

Dans le rapport de 2007, l'Institut worldwide du manganèse a annoncé que "les views de la demande de manganèse n'ont jamais été aussi bonnes". Factors clés inclus:

o Les nuances d'acier intensives au manganèse vont croître plus vite que la moyenne

o La consommation spécifique de manganèse augmente à nouveau

o La demande d'acier dépassera six pour cent par an pendant de nombreuses années

o Réduction des risques pour les dix à quinze prochaines années

Remarque: les aciers à forte intensité de manganèse représentent 13% de la manufacturing totale d'acier inoxydable, mais consomment 41% de la quantité totale de manganèse consommée par l'industrie sidérurgique.

Pour faire face à la demande croissante, BHP Billiton a annoncé avoir augmenté sa manufacturing de manganèse à un niveau report de 1,5 million de tonnes. La société australienne Consolidated Minerals Ltd a considérablement augmenté sa manufacturing de manganèse au cours des deux dernières années. D'autres grandes mines de manganèse ont également augmenté leur manufacturing.

US Manganèse

Parce qu'il est essentiel à la manufacturing d'acier, le gouvernement américain considère le manganèse comme un métal stratégique. Selon Lisa Corathers, spécialiste du manganèse à la US Geological Survey, "Un approvisionnement continu en matériaux à base de manganèse est essentiel pour tout effort de défense, ainsi que pour le maintien et la croissance d'une économie industrielle".

Préoccupé par des shares suffisants, le gouvernement des États-Unis a commencé à stocker du manganèse après la Seconde Guerre mondiale. Cependant, en 1965, le gouvernement fédéral a commencé à vendre des matières à base de manganèse, qu’il estimait supérieures aux besoins. En 2003, le gouvernement avait réduit ses shares à moins de deux ans de consommation de manganèse.

M. Corathers a déclaré: "Depuis 1985, les États-Unis dépendent de 100% de leurs besoins en manganèse."

Nous avons parlé à Larry Reaugh, directeur général de Rocher Deboule Minerals Corp - qui a récemment acquitté la ressource en manganèse à ciel ouvert Artillery Peak (Arizona). Sans nous tromper, il est le seul explorateur minier débutant à acquérir des ressources en manganèse aux États-Unis et au Canada.

Reaugh nous a dit: «Je surveille le manganèse avec consideration depuis plusieurs mois. Le prix a grimpé en flèche cette année, amenant d’importants gisements à faible teneur dans un domaine de faisabilité.

Il a souligné que "le manganèse est l'un des quatre principaux métaux stratégiques des États-Unis, qui n'a pas de manufacturing nationale et qui est également soumis aux importations de pays en majorité instables sur le plan politique".

Bien que les prix du nickel, du cobalt, du vanadium et du molybdène aient considérablement augmenté sept fois, quatre fois, six fois et six fois, le prix du manganèse a toutefois doublé. Le métal gris-blanc pourrait avoir plus de marge de croissance dans les années à venir.

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